Water distribution system
The function of water distribution system is to supply required quantity of water at normal pressure maintaining a good standard of quality.
Components of water distribution system
Essential components of water distribution system are
- Service reservoirs or storage tanks
- Fire hydrants
Methods of water distribution
Water is distributed to the consumer in several different ways.
The methods are
- Direct pumping
In this method the pumps force water direct into the mains with no other outlet than the water actually being used. It is a least desireable system as a power failure would result in the no availability of water. As consumption varies so pressure in the mains is likely to fluctuate. To fulfil the varying consumptions, several pumps are available to add water output when needed. This requiring constant attendance of electricity. This method is costly.
An advantage of this method is that a large fire pump may be sued which can step up the pressure to any desired amount permitted by the construction of mains.
- Pumping in conjunction with storage
In this method, the excessive water is pumped during period of low consumption. This water is then stored in elevated tanks and reservoirs. And when water consumption is high then this stored water is drawn. This method fairly allows uniform rates of pumping and hence it is economical. This method is fairly reliable. Because the stored water may be use at any time when there will be a sudden power failure.
- Gravity distribution
This is possible when lake or reservoir is at some elevation above the city so that sufficient pressure can be maintained in mains for domestic and fire purposes. This is the most reliable method if the conduit from the source to city is sufficient in size and well protected against accidental breaks. High pressure for fire fighting may be obtained only by using motor pumpers of the fire department.