The process of artificial application of water to the soil for the growth of agricultural crops is known as irrigation.
Irrigation is the art of applying water to the land by artificial means to fulfill water requirements of the crops in the areas where rainfall is not sufficient.
Why there is a need for irrigation
There are three essential requirements of plant growth.
In different countries, these essential requirements are different. For example, in England, water is available due to sufficient rainfall.
In Pakistan, Heat and light are in sufficient quantity. But moisture is required due to insufficient rainfall. Hence irrigation is required in place of rainfall, when rainfall is either deficient or comes irregularly.
The knowledge of controlled application of water to the soil to overcome moisture deficiency, is known as Irrigation.
It is the knowledge which helps to bring irrigation water from source of supply to any agricultural land.
It is the science that tells us about the ways and means adopted by the irrigation engineers.
This includes :
- Planning and designing on efficient and low cost irrigation system.
- Controlling the various natural sources of water by the construction of dams and reservoirs, canals and head-works and finally distributing the water ti the agricultural land.
- Drainage of water-logged areas and generation of hydroelectric power.