## Local Coordinates

A local coordinates system whose origin is located within the element in order to simplify the algebraic manipulations in the derivation of the element matrix.

- The use of natural coordinates in expressing approximate functions is advantageous because special integration formulas can often be applied to evaluate the integrals in the element matrix.
- Natural coordinates also play a crucial role in the development of elements with carved boundaries.

### Natural Coordinates

It is a local coordinate system that permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless parameter whose absolute magnitude never exceeds unity.

- It is dimension less.
- They are defined with respect to the element rather than with reference to the global coordinates.

## Global Coordinates

Global coordinates are convenient for specifying the location of each node, the orientation of each element, the boundary conditions and the loads for the entire domain.

- The solution to the field variable is generally represented with respect to the global coordinates.

Sahil Kumar says

difference between loads on global and local axis coordinate system