**Modulus of Resilience **

The work done on a unit volume of material, as a simple tensile force is gradually increased from zero to such a value that the proportional limit of the material is reached, is defined as the modulus of resilience.

This may be calculated as the area under the stress-strain curve from the origin up to the proportional limit and is represented as the shaded area in the figure below.

**Modulus of Toughness **

The work done on a unit volume of material as a simple tensile force is gradually increased from zero to the value causing rupture is defined as the modulus of toughness.

**Poisson’s Ratio **

When a bar is subject to a simple tensile loading there is an increase in length of the bar in the direction of the load, but a decrease in the lateral dimensions perpendicular to the load. The ratio of the strain in the lateral direction to that in the axial direction is defined as Poisson’s ratio.

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