Types of dams with respect to different considerations
Dams have following types with respect to different considerations.
With respect to material of construction
- Masonry dam.
- Concrete dam.
- Steel dam.
- Earth dam.
- Rockfill etc.
With respect to height or size of dam
- Large or high dam.
- small or low dam.
- Medium dam.
With respect to purpose/function of dam
- Irrigation dam.
- Water supply dam.
- Power dam.
- Flood control dam.
- Multi purpose dam.
- Storage dam.
- Diversion dams such as barrages.
- Check dams.
With respect to design criteria
- Arch dam. Its section is narrow at the top and becomes thick in the middle.
- Gravity dam. In these dams, stability is provided through weight of the dam.
- Buttress dam.
With respect to Hydraulic conductivity
- Over flow dams made of concrete.
- Non-over flow dams made of earth material. Spill ways is provided to allow excessive water.
- Economical and feasible to construct.
- Durable and stable.
- Environmental disturbance should be as less as possible.
Factors affecting design
- Characteristics of dam site such as Foundation conditions and geology of bed rock.
- Shape and size of the valley.
- Availability of material of construction.
- Access to the site.
- Climate of the area.
- Reservoir function.
- Probable wave action.
- Construction time.
- Earthquake activity in the area.