Types of Dams | Design criteria | Factors affecting Design

Monday, November 12, 2012 21:46
Posted in category Soil Mechanics 2
Views: 158 views

Types of dams with respect to different considerations

Dams have following types with respect to different considerations.

With respect to material of construction

  1. Masonry dam.
  2. Concrete dam.
  3. Steel dam.
  4. Earth dam.
  5. Rockfill etc.

With respect to height or size of dam

  1. Large or high dam.
  2. small or low dam.
  3. Medium dam.

With respect to purpose/function of dam

  1. Irrigation dam.
  2. Water supply dam.
  3. Power dam.
  4. Flood control dam.
  5. Multi purpose dam.
  6. Storage dam.
  7. Diversion dams such as barrages.
  8. Check dams.

With respect to design criteria

  1. Arch dam. Its section is narrow at the top and becomes thick in the middle.
  2. Gravity dam. In these dams, stability is provided through weight of the dam.
  3. Buttress dam.

With respect to Hydraulic conductivity

  1. Over flow dams made of concrete.
  2. Non-over flow dams made of earth material. Spill ways is provided to allow excessive water.

Design criteria

  1. Economical and feasible to construct.
  2. Durable and stable.
  3. Environmental disturbance should be as less as possible.

Factors affecting design

  1. Characteristics of dam site such as Foundation conditions and geology of bed rock.
  2. Shape and size of the valley.
  3. Availability of material of construction.
  4. Access to the site.
  5. Climate of the area.
  6. Reservoir function.
  7. Probable wave action.
  8. Construction time.
  9. Earthquake activity in the area.
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