Simple and Differential levelling

Friday, August 14, 2015 12:31

Simple levelling

When it is required to find the difference between two points which are visible from a single position of level. Then the method used is simple levelling.

Suppose A and B are two points Continue Reading »

Definition of Change Point and Station

Thursday, August 13, 2015 21:44

Change Point

It may be defined as:

A Change Point ( C.P) is a point which shows the shifting of the level. It is a point on which fore and back sights are taken. Any stable and well defined object such as boundary stone, Continue Reading »

Principles of Surveying

Thursday, August 13, 2015 21:26

Principles of Surveying

Followings are the principles of surveying which should be kept in mind while determining the relative positions of points on the surface of earth:

To work from whole to part

Continue Reading »

Sustainable development | Focus and scale of sustainability

Wednesday, August 12, 2015 10:09

Sustainable development

Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.

Sustainability refers to the ability of a society to continue functioning into indefinite future without being forced into decline through elimination of key resources.

Sustainable development is a strategy by which Continue Reading »

Definition of Coffer Dam | Types of Coffer Dam

Friday, August 7, 2015 18:50

Definition of Coffer Dam

Coffer Dam is a temporary structure constructed in a river, lake etc for excluding water from a given site (where the construction is to be start) to enable Continue Reading »

Definition of Environmental Design | Environment and Environmentalist

Thursday, August 6, 2015 9:25

Environmental Design

Environmental design in buildings is the study of the way in which a person’s physical and psychological behavior can be affected by his/her environment. It refers to the factors which contribute towards the comfort of the human environment such as heating, cooling lighting and air quality.

Today the term environmental design if often associated with issues pertaining to the green movement, ecological concerns and sustainability. Continue Reading »

Definition of research | Positivism and Naturalism | Subjectivity

Tuesday, August 4, 2015 20:16
Posted in category Research methodology

Definition of Research

Research may  be defined as

Careful study that is done to find and report new knowledge about something and to find out answers to a question.

The activity of getting knowledge about a subject.

When you say you are doing a research then you are implying that the process: Continue Reading »

Frame Structure | Why Concrete Frame structures are preferred ?

Monday, March 3, 2014 12:29
Posted in category Design of Structures


A rigid frame structure is one made up of linear elements, typically beams & columns, which are connected to one another at there ends with joints that don’t allow any relative rotations to occur between the ends of the attached members, although themselves may rotate as unity. Continue Reading »

Definition of Structure and Masonry Structure

Tuesday, February 25, 2014 21:49
Posted in category Design of Structures


A structure is one in which the members are arranged in such a way that the weights, loads & forces are transmitted to the foundations by the cheapest means consistent with the intended use and nature of the structure.

There are two types of structures:

  1. Masonry Structures.
  2. Frame structure.


In typical masonry construction, the main loads are transfer to the foundations via the internal load bearing wall. The external skin serves to provide weather protection and aesthetic quality. Continue Reading »

Local Coordinates and Global Coordinates in Finite Element Analysis

Monday, January 20, 2014 18:08
Posted in category Structural Engineering

Local Coordinates

A local coordinates system whose origin is located within the element in order to simplify the algebraic manipulations in the derivation of the element matrix.

  • The use of natural coordinates in expressing approximate functions is advantageous because special integration formulas can often be applied to evaluate the integrals in the element matrix. Continue Reading »