Value Engineering | Objectives and goals of Value Engineering

Monday, January 13, 2014 23:32

Value Engineering

As an engineering function, Value Engineering uses a process of function cost analysis to identify features that can be changed to reduce cost without affecting the quality of the facility. Continue Reading »

Canal Alignment

Friday, January 10, 2014 22:11

How Canal Alignment should be done ?

Canal Alignment should be done in such a way that

  1. It should serve the entire area proposed to be irrigated.
  2. Cost of construction including cross drainage works should be minimized.
  3. A shorter length of canal ensures less loss of head due to friction and smaller loss of discharge due to seepage and evaporation, so that additional area may be brought under cultivation.
  4. A canal may be aligned as a contour canal, a side slope canal or a ridge canal according to the type of terrain and culturable area.
  5. A contour canal irrigate areas only on one side of the canal. Continue Reading »

Definition of Kor watering | Kor Period | Kor Depth

Saturday, December 14, 2013 21:28

Kor watering

The first watering is done when the crop has grown to about three centimeters. This watering is known as Kor watering.

Kor Period

The period during which kor watering is done is known as kor Period. Continue Reading »

Drip irrigation or Trickle irrigation or Micro Irrigation

Tuesday, October 29, 2013 21:04

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is the delivery of water to the roots of the plant at low flow rates through various types of water applicators by a distribution system located on the soil surface, beneath the surface, or suspended above the ground. Continue Reading »

Warabandi system of water management

Tuesday, October 29, 2013 15:19

Warabandi system of water management


WARABANDI is a rotational method for equitable distribution of the available water in an irrigation system by turns fixed according to a predetermined schedule specifying year, day, time and duration of supply to each irrigator in proportion to the size of his landholding in the outlet command.

The term WARABANDI means turns (Wahr) which are fixed (bandi). Continue Reading »

Comparison between canals and drains

Saturday, October 5, 2013 21:51

Comparison between canals and drains

Following are the points of comparison between canal and drains. Continue Reading »

Surface Course of Rigid Pavement

Friday, October 4, 2013 19:14

Surface Course of Rigid Pavement

The surface course is the layer in contact with traffic loads. It consists of the PCC slab which is the stiffest layer and provides the majority of strength. Continue Reading »

Base Course and Sub Base Course of Rigid Pavement

Friday, October 4, 2013 18:59

Sub Base Course of Rigid Pavement

This is the layer (or layers) under the base layer. The properties and function of this layer are similar to those under flexible roads/pavements. A sub-base is not always needed and therefore may often be omitted. Continue Reading »

Rigid Road or Rigid Pavement

Friday, October 4, 2013 18:42

Rigid Road or Rigid Pavement

Rigid pavement composed of a PCC surface course. Such pavements are substantially “stiffer” than flexible pavements due to the high modulus of elasticity of the PCC material.   Continue Reading »

Surface Course of Flexible Pavement

Wednesday, October 2, 2013 12:08

Surface Course of Flexible Pavement

This is the top layer which comes in contact with traffic. It normally contains the highest quality materials. 

typical detail of road section

It serves to prevent the entrance of excessive quantities of surface water into the underlying base & sub-grade.

Surface Course is Sub-divided into two Layers

Wearing Course

A layer in direct contact with traffic loads.  It is meant to take the impact of traffic and can be removed and replaced as it becomes worn.

Intermediate/Binder Course

This layer provides the bulk of the Hot Mix Asphalt structure.  It’s main purpose is to distribute load. It may compose of one or several HMA sublayers.