When the quality of water is not satisfactory, then the water is make it suitable for the intended use. It includes removal of
- Suspended matters.
- Color and odour producing substances.
- Chemicals not suitable for drinking or other use of water.
The above mentioned materials are removed in a water treatment plant. This process is completed by the series of units which are suitable to the raw-water, characteristics of raw-water source and the desired quality of finished water. A typical flow diagram for a conventional water treatment plant for municipal water supply is given as
Raw water is entered in the coagulation & flocculation tank. By passing through these units, treated water is collected from the disinfection tank.
A water treatment plant is designed on the basis of maximum daily flow.
Type and degree of water treatment
The type and degree of water treatment will depend upon the
- Source of raw-water.
- Intended use of water after treatment.
If clear water is obtained from the lakes or reservoirs, only filtration and disinfection units may be required.
Generally ground water required no treatment, if there are no chemical precipitates are present in the water. However, filtration is necessary for lime softening, removal of iron and manganese etc.