Definition of PhotoChemical Smog or Urban Ozone

Sunday, October 4, 2015 9:08

Definition of Urban Ozone or PhotoChemical Smog

Smog is a type of air pollution during which relatively high levels of Ozone O3 which is an undesirable constituent of air at low altitudes, are produced as a result of light induced reaction of pollutants. This phenomenon is known as PhotoChemical Smog.

It is also characterized as an ozone layer in the wrong place.

Word Smog is a combination of the words Continue Reading »

Ozone Layer | Concentration Creation and Depletion of Ozone Layer

Monday, September 28, 2015 12:34

Ozone Layer

Ozone layer is the region of the atmosphere, that is earth’s natural sunscreen, since it filters out harmful ultraviolet rays from sunlight before they can reach on the surface of our planet and cause damages to human and other life forms.

Ozone Layer is present in the upper and middle region of the stratosphere.


The total amount of atmospheric ozone is expressed in terms of Dobson Units (DU).

Each Dobson Unit is equivalent to a 0.001 mm thickness of pure ozone at the density it would possess if it were brought to ground level (1mm) pressure. 

Ozone Concentration Continue Reading »

Major Green house Gases

Tuesday, September 22, 2015 0:12

Green house Gases

By their percentage contribution to the green house effect on Earth the four major green house gases are:

  • water vapor.
  • carbon dioxide.
  • methane.
  • ozone.
  • CFCs.

Carbon dioxide

During spring and summer Continue Reading »

Definition and Mechanism of Green house effect

Monday, September 21, 2015 14:34

Green house

A green house is a closed compartment usually made up of glass, where plants are kept in the controlled climatic conditions (temperature, light etc.) regardless of the season.

Green house effect

The redirection of thermal radiation towards the earth is called Green House Effect.

The green house effect is the rise in temperature that the earth experiences. Because certain gases in the atmosphere trap heat energy from the sun. These gases do not let it escape while the light is transmitted unimpeded. Continue Reading »

Definition of Green wall | Difference between Green wall and facade

Sunday, September 20, 2015 0:16

Definition of Wall

A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.

There are many kinds of walls:

  • Defensive walls in fortification..
  • Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior sections, sometimes for fire safety.
  • Retaining walls, which hold back earth, stone or water.
  • Walls that protect from oceans (seawalls or rivers levees).
  • Permanent, solid fences.
  • Border barriers between countries.

Green Walls Continue Reading »

Roof and Green Roof and their characteristics and disadvantages

Thursday, September 17, 2015 14:01


A roof is part of a building envelope, both the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides
protection from animals and weather, rain, but also heat, wind and sunlight; and the framing or structure which supports the covering.


  • The characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers.
  • The available roofing materials.
  • The local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and practice, may also be governed by local or national legislation.
  • In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain.
  • A verandah may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements.
  • The roof of a garden conservatory, protects plants from cold, wind and rain but admits light.

Definition of Green roof Continue Reading »

Construction Process | Three sectors of construction industry

Thursday, September 17, 2015 13:25

Construction Process

Construction process is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility. 

Difference between manufacturing and construction

It differs from manufacturing as, manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items Continue Reading »

Role of Built structures and their effects on environment

Monday, September 14, 2015 11:34

Role of Built Structures

The role of built structures is to provide shelter from environmental factors such as

  • rain.
  • storm.
  • sun light.
  • snow, etc.
  • and also to form a base for settlement.

Even from the days of mankind in caves to the modern day era of technology, the purpose is to built a livable space which fulfills its purpose and function. Continue Reading »

Effects of Noise on Physical Health

Sunday, September 6, 2015 10:01

Effects of Noise on Health

  • High level of noise can also lead to increase in arousal and stress.
  • Incidences of Diseases related to stress-hypertension such as blood pressure, ulcers etc. would increase as one is exposed to higher levels of more unpredictable and uncontrollable noise.
  • Noise has been linked to spontaneous outbreaks Continue Reading »

Observation as a primary source of data collection in a research study

Tuesday, September 1, 2015 15:34
Posted in category Research methodology


Observation is one way to collect primary data. It is a purposeful way of watching and listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it takes place.

Types of observations

There are two types:

  1. Participant.
  2. Non Participant.


When the researcher participates in the activities of the group being observed in the same manner as its members. Members may know or do not know that they are being observed. Continue Reading »