Shallow foundation | Spread, Combined, Strap and Raft foundation

Monday, November 16, 2015 14:28

For definition of foundation, click link below:

Substructure Foundation and basement 

Definition of Shallow foundation

The foundation may be broadly classified as shallow foundation and deep foundation. Continue Reading »

Construction stages and Responsibilities of Construction team

Sunday, November 15, 2015 22:42

Construction Stages

Following are various stages in every construction work.

  1. Conception or Continue Reading »

Softening of Water | Hard Water | Temporary and Permanent Hardness

Saturday, November 14, 2015 15:18

Softening of Water

Water treatment for the removal of water hardness or dissolved impurities from water, is known as softening of water.

Hard water

Water contains chlorides, sulphates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium is referred as hard water.

The hardness may be temporary or permanent. Continue Reading »

The Research Process | Eight steps you need to carry out research

Friday, November 13, 2015 14:20
Posted in category Research methodology

Definition of Critical Neutral Axis and Actual Neutral Axis

Thursday, November 12, 2015 12:57
Posted in category Mechanics of Solids 1

Critical Neutral Axis

The critical neutral axis of a section is based on the principle that the neutral axis is situated at the center of gravity of a given section.

Actual Neutral axis Continue Reading »

Definition of Point Load | Uniformly distributed and Varying Load

Saturday, November 7, 2015 22:34
Posted in category Mechanics of Solids 1

Definition of Concentrated or Point load

A load acting at a definite or specific point of a beam is known as point load or concentrated load. 

That is called concentrated because that load is focusing on a single point.

Uniformly distributed load Continue Reading »

Definition of Overhanging Beam | Fixed Beam | Continuous beam

Saturday, November 7, 2015 22:02
Posted in category Mechanics of Solids 1

Definition of Overhanging beam

A overhanging beam may be defined as: Continue Reading »

Definition of PhotoChemical Smog or Urban Ozone

Sunday, October 4, 2015 9:08

Definition of Urban Ozone or PhotoChemical Smog

Smog is a type of air pollution during which relatively high levels of Ozone O3 which is an undesirable constituent of air at low altitudes, are produced as a result of light induced reaction of pollutants. This phenomenon is known as PhotoChemical Smog.

It is also characterized as an ozone layer in the wrong place.

Word Smog is a combination of the words Continue Reading »

Ozone Layer | Concentration Creation and Depletion of Ozone Layer

Monday, September 28, 2015 12:34

Ozone Layer

Ozone layer is the region of the atmosphere, that is earth’s natural sunscreen, since it filters out harmful ultraviolet rays from sunlight before they can reach on the surface of our planet and cause damages to human and other life forms.

Ozone Layer is present in the upper and middle region of the stratosphere.


The total amount of atmospheric ozone is expressed in terms of Dobson Units (DU).

Each Dobson Unit is equivalent to a 0.001 mm thickness of pure ozone at the density it would possess if it were brought to ground level (1mm) pressure. 

Ozone Concentration Continue Reading »

Major Green house Gases

Tuesday, September 22, 2015 0:12

Green house Gases

By their percentage contribution to the green house effect on Earth the four major green house gases are:

  • water vapor.
  • carbon dioxide.
  • methane.
  • ozone.
  • CFCs.

Carbon dioxide

During spring and summer Continue Reading »